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Everything posted by Brewer

  1. Thanks to Creeps - Yes, that was my concern so I was hoping that there might be a chart that was published by some non proprietary group that was meant for educational purposes - and BDawg62 - the fact that this information is often produced by the packagers of hops means that if they don't sell the hop then they act as if the hop does not exist - Google simply offers to provide you with a link to information available - It does not itself create the information... But thanks for your suggestion. I had tried that approach but found it less than useful which is why I posted my query here...
  2. Not sure the best forum to post this question but I am looking for a chart that will provide me with the key aroma characteristics of the best hops with which to dry hop. I see that some hops are good for bitterness and for flavor while others are good for only bittering and yet others are good only for flavoring (low alpha acids) but is there a list of hops considered really good for dry hopping? I am looking for tropical fruit notes.
  3. But to answer the question you posed. K-sorbate inhibits yeast from budding. Doesn't kill them and doesn't prevent fermentation in any literal way but what it does is prevent yeast cells from reproducing. That means that when yeast cell die there are none to replace them and I think that the chronological lifespan of a yeast cell once brought back into animated life is about 6 days... At least that is my understanding of what K-sorbate does, though if you have ever tried to ferment say, apple juice that has been preserved with sorbates, you will know that it is as close to impossible as possible to get the yeast to overcome the sorbates. That said "pasteurizing" fruit (AKA cooking it) makes fruit taste like jam.. but you can always add k-meta (AKA Campden tablets) dissolved in water 24 hours before you add any fruit to a fermentation. K-meta produces SO2 and sulfur dioxide will kill wild yeast and other microbes (LAB, for example) on the surface (and insides) of fruit. The 24 hours is needed to allow the SO2 to evaporate off. This is a standard procedure used by wine makers.
  4. Yeah, but the inexpense is one thing. My concern is two -fold - 1) the yeast at this stage cannot in fact take up any nutrient (sorry cannot find the reference but I think it is in the Scottslab handbook) and 2) if they cannot then that nutrient is going to flavor the mead AND is going to be a treasure chest for any lurking microbes.
  5. I am a wee bit confused. Tim adds nutrient to the mead that he has just racked from the primary. Presumably racking implies that the active fermentation is just about coming to an end so there is virtually no more fermentable sugar for the yeast to work on AND assuming that he uses about 2 lbs of honey/gallon (an SG of about 1.070 or an ABV of about 9%) yeast cannot take up more nutrient with that amount of alcohol in solution - so what was the purpose of adding more nutrient? Moreover, if you simply add more nutrient than the yeast can handle then either the nutrient will lie around creating off flavors (or flavors you did not intend) OR you simply encourage other microbes by providing them with nutrients they can use. What is the benefit then of adding nutrients so late in the process?
  6. Many, many thanks for your detailed and useful post. I will certainly check out Milk the Funk.
  7. Many thanks Bonsai & Brew. That is a really good site.
  8. I wasn't necessarily asking Josh to respond. Anyone who has the answers is welcome
  9. Hi Really enjoyed Josh's video last night about gose beers. I tried to post some questions but the program would not allow me to... So perhaps I can ask the questions here. 1. Josh said that simply adding lactic bacteria (LAB) would take months for the beer to sour. I have been experimenting with "rejuvelac" - a drink made by adding water to sprouting grains (say wheat berry or quinoa or rye) and after three days the pH of the water drops to about 3.7 because of the LAB that has been encouraged to grow. Why would it take so much longer for LAB to work in a wort? 2. The video showed Josh adding lactic acid rather than LAB but immediately adding yeast. But what would happen if he had added LAB? Would the yeast swiftly take over and inhibit or prevent the LAB from acidifying the wort? What would the LAB convert to lactic acid if the yeast ferment all available sugar? Is there sugar that the LAB can get at that yeast cannot? 3. And this may be a laughable question - but if I add LAB to a wort can I still use lactose to add more sweetness (the yeast cannot ferment lactose) or will the LAB simply use any added lactose to make the wort even more sour? Thanks
  10. There's a mildly (IMO) interesting podcast offered by The Mead House. In the most recent episode (# )59 there is a discussion about making meads which are ready for top notch competitions (and which are medal winners) in only a few weeks. But these are , I think, the equivalent of session meads - low ABV meads.
  11. In Britain pint jars in pubs have a line near the top, below which there can be NO foam whatsoever. You buy a pint of ale, not a pint of froth or foam.
  12. Thank you. I was looking for color and flavor - and not to boost the gravity.
  13. @ Creeps McLane, Yes. Am I asking whether I can expect the gravity to rise if I add say 2-4 oz of chocolate malt to LME or if this wil simply add more flavor and color.
  14. If a grain has 0 L diastatic power (for example, chocolate malt) does that mean that there is essentially no starch in the grain because of the way it has been kilned as well as no enzymes) and so if I add this to my wort should I expect no increase in gravity and "only" added color and flavor, or will the enzymes in the wort convert whatever starches are in the chocolate malt to fermentable sugars? Thanks, as always
  15. If you look at commercial meaderies for example, they all suggest that at most they may heat their honey to about 100 F (my hot water faucet runs at 90 F) simply to make the honey flow more easily. If you are pitching a large enough batch of viable yeast then the few cells of wild yeast will be far out-competed by the lab cultured yeast and if you are anxious about the yeast and bacteria in the honey you might add K-meta (AKA campden tablets) to the must 24 hours before pitching your yeast. Why the change in protocol? To be honest I just think that as mead is becoming less of an exotic drink, more and more people are making mead and are questioning and testing all kinds of received assumptions - including the idea that it can take years for mead to reach its prime. Groennfell Meadery, in Vermont, for example, states that their mead, from honey to sale, takes about 4 - 6 weeks. Another long held view that you pitch your yeast and you forget about the mead for a year or two is now viewed as errant nonsense: you need to degas the mead during active fermentation (CO2 inhibits fermentation) and you need to provide nutrient (many argue) as the yeast converts the sugar. One other lovely assumption that has been demolished in the last few years is that mead will be both high in alcohol and sweet - many commercial (and home brewers) meaderies now design their meads to be low ABV (about 5 or 6% (so use about 1.25 - 1.5 lbs of honey/gallon) ; dry; and carbonated - so they are enjoyed like beer and not as if they are dessert wines. According to the American Mead Makers Association, in 2003 there were 30 meaderies in the continental USA. By 2016, there were 300 with 50 or so breweries offering mead. There is a great online forum for those interested in mead making. Not sure of the ethics of listing its name here but I will provide the name to anyone who sends me a private message
  16. Apologies for resurrecting an older thread, but I think the idea of adding yeast along with some priming sugar is because given the length of time aging and the relatively high ABV of the barleywine it is possible (not very likely but possible) that there are not enough viably active yeast cells in the beer to carbonate it in the bottle. Adding some more viable yeast will ensure carbonation BUT... simply adding any yeast to a high ABV solution may in fact hobble this yeast which is why the suggestion is that priming can take many months. I have never made a barleywine but I wonder whether adding a champagne yeast (they are cultivated to prime champagne in the bottle and that wine might be 12-14% ABVand aged for years before being bottled) and are considered to be "killer" strains (that is, they do not play nicely with other strains of yeast) will ensure carbonation.... ?
  17. A few quick observations. #1 Buckwheat honey from East Coast hives tastes very ... um.. earthy, some say, unpleasant. West Coast buckwheat has a very different flavor profile, much more pleasing. and I say that as someone who loves saison beer and who often makes mead using saison yeast. #2 In the dim and distant past, mead makers boiled their honey - I suspect because the water was not potable but there is really no need to "pasteurize" honey in 2017. If the honey is not raw and was filtered then there are really no significant "bee parts" and it has already been pasteurized. And any raw honey I get from local farmers' markets here in Upstate NY is filtered clean and heating that honey above about 100 F will in fact destroy the very volatile molecules that create the taste and smell of the honey. You might as well ferment table sugar if you "pasteurize" the honey. Honey , in and of itself has so little moisture that it will extract the moisture from living cells and kill them which is why honey has throughout history been used as a bactericide and was used to treat wounds to prevent infections (That's not to say that raw honey does not in fact contain living but dormant yeast cells - You can ferment raw honey without the addition of lab cultured yeast, if you know what you are doing - bees and flower pollen being covered with wild yeast). That is not to say, of course, that all wild fermented meads will taste good. It can taste like crap... which is why you might want to carefully propagate the wild yeast in tiny batches of the honey and use your taste and smell to see whether the colony of yeast you are growing is a keeper or not. #3 Using 3.5 lbs of honey per gallon will make a honey wine (something to be sipped), but you can make a session mead - (something to be quaffed at around 6-7% ABV ) by using about 1.25 - 1.5 lbs of honey to the gallon (1 lb of honey will raise the gravity of 1 gallon of water by about 1.035, so 1.5 lbs will have a potential ABV of about 6.55 % (an SG of about 1.050). The flavor may be a bit thinner than a mead at 14% (most of the flavor comes from the honey but your choice of yeast plays a significant part too) but if you allow this to ferment bone dry (and honey will ferment down below 1.000) and you then add carbonation drops or additional honey dissolved in a little water you can carbonate this mead and have a brew that you can enjoyably drink in about 4 weeks from pitching the yeast that can go head to head with just about any beer or cider. At 14% ABV this honey wine might need to age six months or longer... . #4 Many (but not all mead makers ) argue that the higher the ABV and so the more honey in the must the more yeast you need to pitch. You might consider using one pack of yeast for every gallon. You really cannot over-pitch yeast as a home brewer but you can under-pitch and under-pitching, ironically, can create stresses on the yeast that lead to yeasty flavors and aromas...
  18. Brewer


    There seems to be a little bit of confusion around the terms being used. Brett is a yeast and I don't think that it in fact "sours" anything. Brett. short for Brettanomyces, is simply a different kind of yeast but it is a yeast that can create funky flavors and wine makers used to dread the presence of this yeast. More than that, Brett can ferment sugars that Saccharomyces (the usual suspect) cannot, so for example, if you have a wooden barrel OR you have oak chips Brett can get inside the wood and transform some of the sugars from the wood into ethanol. So if Brett was found in a winery that used to mean that it was likely to have infected all their barrels. But today, a number of commercial and amateur mead-makers are experimenting with Brett. Souring comes from the presence of bacteria - not fungi like yeast, and those bacteria produce lactic acid - Lacto-brevis , for example. I may be wrong about this but according to White Labs lactic strains can only ferment one or two points so you need to either finish with an ale yeast or start with an ale yeast. The thing about wort is that it is very susceptible to lactic bacterial infection and while you can certainly add cultured colonies of bacteria if you allow your wort to slowly cool and leave it "open" for 24 hours before pitching your yeast it will have begun to sour because of the bacteria in the environment.
  19. And if you make a mistake and don't follow the instructions perfectly don't worry. Brewing is really quite forgiving, most problems can be solved and most brews can be salvaged...
  20. I have to say that the Inkbird is a great temperature controller. I use it mainly for controlling the temperature of a small dorm room fridge I use as a cheese cave but you can use it to keep the temperature of your fermenter at a reasonable level in the summer or, if your basement gets too cold to allow the yeast to ferment in the winter, to control a heater. Never tried it to control the temperature of a slow cooker but I would think that you could use it to transform your crockpot into a sous vide. Unlike some controllers this one is truly "plug and play".
  21. Sorry, but I have never made a cider form a kit but making cider from pressed apples requires time. After 9 months or so apple flavors transform from OK into something incredible. Bottom line: you may simply need to allow your cider to age. Again, I am unfamiliar with Mr Beer cider kits but apples contain malic acid and malic is a very sharp flavored acid. Time - and the right yeast (71B , IMO) is what juice from a good blend of apples need.
  22. A better approach might be to make a starter and then store, say, 25 % of that starter - no need to "wash" the yeast and no problem with transferring flavors from one beer to a different beer...
  23. I suspect that the idea of chilling beer was to hide the fact that commercial beers were pretty close to having no flavor and the colder you drank them the less flavor your mouth can taste. British beers were typically made with barley (compare the rice and other grains used by the BIG brewers in the US) and so they were drunk for the flavor... I never knew that beer was "supposed" to be chilled until I moved to the States.. But then , room temperature in Scotland was never warm ...
  24. I guess Mr Beer assumes that first time brewers are not going to be buying kits with grains... and so won't assume that the instructions ON THE CANS included are NOT the instructions for the kit they have just purchased... My point is really not whether Mr Beer SHOULD include instructions but that they DO include instructions - only the wrong ones... C'est la guerre..
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